Historia de Aikido en detalle

1.- What is aiki?

a)      Aiki in the Edo (1603-1868), Meiji (1868-1912), and Taisho (1912¬1925) periods

http://lofarzone.com/?art=best-casinos-online-us-for-real-money&8c4=e2 best casinos online us for real money http://easthill.fi/?node=Lotus-Asia-netticasino&31f=77 Lotus Asia netticasino http://uselessiphonestuff.com/?art=%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%88%D8%BA%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%A8%D8%A9-%D9%88%D8%B1%D9%82-%D8%B9%D9%84%D9%89-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%AA%D8%B1%D9%86%D8%AA&a3f=1f %D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%88%D8%BA%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%A8%D8%A9-%D9%88%D8%B1%D9%82-%D8%B9%D9%84%D9%89-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%AA%D8%B1%D9%86%D8%AA bejeweled-2-slots-online http://dschlaepfer.com/?art=%D9%81%D8%AA%D8%AD%D8%A9-Octopays&ee6=97 فتحة Octopays

However, in the Meiji era, books about aikijutsu rather than kenjutsu put a positive significance to aiki. Aiki no Jutsu (Techniques of Aiki) by Bukotsu, published in Tokyo in 1892, is the oldest book about aiki. The author wrote that tekijin dokushin no jutsu (techniques of reading an opponent’s mind) and kiai (yelling) are the most important parts of aiki. The former teaches the control of an opponent before an actual fight; that is, reading his thoughts at the same time as they spring to his mind, or using go no sen, which is avoiding his thoughts of beating you. The latter teaches you how to defeat an opponent with your voice.

Shikatsu Jizai Sekkotsuryoho Jujutsu Seirisho (The Physiology of Setting Broken Bones in Jujutsu), written by Matsunosuke Iguchi in 1896, has a chapter called jujutsu gokui kuden (jujutsu secrets taught only by word of mouth). In this chapter he wrote that there were some books that mention aiki. Shisei Chuai, a book on kenjutsu, written by Umataro Mochizuki and published in Osaka in 1904, also has a chapter called kiai no koto (yelling) that says, “Kiai is the final target of bujutsu. Our predecessors called this skill the best technique of bujutsu. Life or death depends on kiai.”

After the middle of the Meiji era, the word aiki was often used as kiai and it had a positive meaning among the people concerned. In the Taisho era, this trend continued and we can find aiki along with kiai in many books on bujutsu. They say aiki is the technique in which you can take advantage in a battle by reading an opponent’s mind.

b) The change of name from Daito-ryu Jujutsu to Daito-ryu Aiki Jujutsu

Today, we know that Morihei Ueshiba was the founder of aikido, but it is said that aikido derives from Daito-ryu Jujutsu, revived by Sokaku Takeda. In the latter half of the Taisho era, the name of their school was changed from Daito-ryu J ujutsu to Daito-ryu Aiki J ujutsu, apparently because of the situation as described above. We know the name was changed from a scroll dated August 1922 that Takeda gave to Ueshiba and from his eimeiroku (list of prominent followers). There appears to be no mention of Daito-ryu Aiki Jujutsu before this time.

According to the eimeiroku, Takeda taught Daito-ryu Aiki Jujutsu to Ueshiba from April 28 to September 15, 1922, at a villa in Ayabe in Kyoto prefecture. He stayed in Ayabe with his wife Sue and his son T okimune for five months and taught military officers, kendo instructors, and disciples of the Omoto religion. At this time he gave 22 seminars, after which Ueshiba was allowed to teach Daito-ryu Aiki Jujutsu.

We can assume Ueshiba had a good relationship with Takeda because of Takeda’s long stay, documentary records and the permission to teach. Onisaburo Deguchi, who was the leader of the Omoto religion, gave Ueshiba a great deal of money as a token of appreciation when Takeda left. We do not know who proposed changing the name of their school, but recently some people have said Ueshiba made the suggestion, although there is no proof. This suggests that Ueshiba put ‘Aiki’ into Daito-ryu. However, this is unlikely, because Ueshiba never mentioned it and also Ueshiba and Takeda’s relationship in those days was too strict to allow it. Rather, we think educated military officers, who visited Ayabe and learned Daito-ryu, had an influence on the change of name due to the popularity of the book Aiki no Jutsu mentioned above.

Ueshiba is the man on whom Takeda put his hope as a leader of Daito-ryu Aiki Jujutsu. Afterwartls, Ueshiba became more and more independent of Daito-ryu, but after he built an 80tatami dojo of his own in Tokyo in the Showa era, people at that time testified that there was a certificate of Daito-ryu Aiki Jujutsu hanging in the dojo. So why did Ueshiba leave Daito-ryu? How could he found his own school of aikido? In order to solve these questions, we retrace his career.

2.- Morihei Ueshiba – the road to aikido

To learn about Ueshiba’s training methods, one should investigate Aikido Kaiso (founder) Ueshiba Morihei (retitled Bu no Tatsujin in 1981) by Kanemoto Sunadomari and Aikido Kaiso Ueshiba Morihei Den by Kisshomaru Ueshiba. The first book describes some episodes that only the inner circle knew about. The second includes detailed descriptions and exhaustive reports but little about Ueshiba’s relationship with Takeda. In this book we shall trace his training methods, referring to both of these books, supplemented by other books, records, and research.

a) Bujutsu training in his youth

Morihei Ueshiba was born in Tanabe, Wakayama Prefecture in 1883. From his childhood he was a scrawny, sickly looking child. He seemed not to like studying very much, leaving junior high school before graduation. At the age of 18 he went to Tokyo, became an apprentice to a whole saler, and started his’ own business. In the evenings he practiced toryu Jujutsu under Tokusaburo Tozawa (or Tobari), which was his first training in bujursu. Later it is said that he practiced Shinkage-ryu Kenjutsu, but the details are unknown.

In 1903, at the age of twenty, he joined the army in Osaka. He was short, only 156 cm, but was good at jukenjutsu (bayonet) and taught it to soldiers in place of their instructors. Later he became skilled in sojutsu (spear). He also learned Gotoha Yagyu Shingan-ryu Jujutsu from Masakatsu Nakai in Sakai during and after his military service, and got his certificate at the age of twenty-five. After leaving the army he returned home (to farm) and practiced judo with his village friends in his converted barn under the guidance of a judo practitioner who happened to visit there.

We can speculate that his foundation in bujutsu and, in particular, his four years in the army and the continued judo training contributed to his improved physical strength. We should remember that he ascribed his later success with aikido to this earlier training.

b) Meeting Sokaku Takeda

In March 1912, Morihei went to Shirataki in Hokkaido as the leader of some settlers. His group made great progress with this difficult project through his leadership and patience, and in 1914 there was much hope of settling down. He became a splendid leader in finance and politics while living there. His experience was beneficial to the rest of his life in budo, but the most decisive event for him was his encounter with Sokaku Takeda.

In February 1915, at the age of thirty-one, he met Takeda and became his pupil. Morihei learned Daito-ryu from Takeda all day long for a month. According to an anecdote Takeda told, he put Morihei through heavy and painful lessons, but, for some reason did not permit Morihei to join Daito-ryu at first. It was Kotaro Yoshida, a friend and follower of Takeda, who persuaded him that Morihei was a good man, so he was able to join later. After a month of lessons, Morihei invited Takeda to Shirataki and zealously learned Daito-ryu with five or six people.

At that time, his arm and body strength was greater than when he was in his twenties due to his hard work as a settler clearing the forest. We can imagine how, as he said later, by felling trees he built up his strength in not just his arms but also his hips and legs. After March 1916, Morihei often accompanied Takeda to teach. As some of Takeda’s followers were high-ranking government officials, such as court judges or police chiefs, he gained a reputation as a promising young representative of Sokaku.

In May 1917, a big fire broke out in Shirataki and his village was severely damaged. Morihei encouraged the people, who had fallen into a state of lethargy because of the disaster, and played a leadership role in the restoration of the area. In June 1918, he was elected a member of the village assembly. He became a representative figure in Shirataki, and had a bright future, but all of a sudden, in December 1919, he left for an unknown reason.

c) Faith in the Omoto religion and training in Ayabe

Morihei headed home to Tanabe after hearing the news of his father’s critical illness. When he arrived in Kyoto he headed for Ayabe. It is said that he wanted a priest at the headquarters of the Omoto religion to pray for his father. Morihei met the leader of Omoto, Onisaburo Deguchi, and attracted by his character, he stayed there for three days. (He received a telegram saying that his father was dying but nobody knows the real reason why he left such a promised land. He sold his entire estate and never returned. ) When he finally returned home on January 4, 1920, his father had already died.

He was so shocked that he moved to Ayabe with his wife and three children in the spring of 1920 to tn~er into a religious life. Deguchi gave them a warm welcome and Morihei had his second important encounter. (The first one of course was with Sokaku Takeda.)

In Ayabe Morihei and his family lived in a house behind the present Ayabe elementary school. When autumn came, with Deguchi’s suggestion he rebuilt a section of his house to set up a dojo and opened the UeshibaJuku. Deguchi saw his talent for bujutsu and made the best use of it. Deguchi intended to organize and train young men of the Omoto religion.

In February 1921, the National Police Agency cracked down on the Omoto religion and arrested Deguchi and many associates. In June he was released on bail and carried out a reformation of his organization. Morihei took charge of the farms, while working hard as a senior member. It seems he became more pious about the ideology and the religious austerities effected by Deguchi.

In those days there were many educated believers in Omoto, including celebri¬ties and military officers. As Seikyo Asano (a naval vice-admiral) was the elder brother of a representative of Omoto, Morihei got a chance to go out into the world and become famous.

d) Takeda’ s stay in Ayabe

Many books describing Morihei Ueshiba focus on the emigration to Mongolia in 1924 as his adventure in the T aisho period. But Takeda’ s long stay in Ayabe was just as important to his training progress.

In the spring of 1922, Takeda visited Morihei in Ayaberin Ost likely at Morihei or Deguchi’s invitation. They needed the expertise of the Daito-ryu master, as they had to teach military officers who were skilled in kendo or judo. Sokaku Takeda came all the way to Ayabe with his wife and son. Many commissioned officers participated in his seminars. In particular, during a nine-day seminar beginning on June 11, the naval vice-admiral Seikyo Asano participated. One day Takeda had a kendo match against Kanichi Suzuki. Although Suzuki was famous as an instruc¬tor, Takeda overpowered him without wearing a mask for protection. Participants, including Asano, were surprised at his kendo skill.

It was very significant that Takeda stayed in Ayabe to improve Morihei’s techniques. In September of that year Morihei received a certificate from Takeda and was permitted to teach. It was around this time that Daito-ryu J ujutsu changed its name to Daito-ryu Aiki Jujutsu.

Asano, fascinated by Daito-ryu during seminars in Ayabe, introduced it to General Isamu Takeshita and others in the naval officers’ school. By this turn of fate, in the autumn of 1925, Takeshita invited Morihei Ueshiba to Tokyo. Later, his family moved there, so finally aikido moved into the center ofJapan.

e) Morihei’s training and his estrangement from Sokaku

Morihei improved because ofTakeda’s lessons. In February 1924, he followed Onisaburo Deguchi to Mongolia, had a narrow escape there, and miraculously returned to Ayabe in July. He took a job keeping farms and taught Daito-ryu in the Ueshiba J uku again. One of his most outstanding practices at that time was sojutsu. “Morihei handled freely a spear about 2.7 meters long. He hung 7 or 8 sponge balls with strings from trees, which encircled him, and speared these balls in a moment. He then repeated this.” (Aikido Kaiso Ueshiba Morihei Den) Morihei experienced himself what Takeda had gone through from his childhood. We can see how serious Morihei was about bujutsu. While surviving a life-or-death situation in Mongolia, he had an epiphany. He said that he discovered that he could easily dodge bullets or swords when he was going to be shot in Mongolia or be struck by expert sordsmen in Ayabe. He said he saw a white light shaped like a beam just before they would shoot or strike. “While in his garden in the spring of 1925, a golden atmosphere suddenly blew up from the earth covering his whole body. At this time he realized that the source ofbudo is the love of God, namely the spirit of affection for everyone, and he cried with tears of joy. His successors think of this day as the founding day of aikido.

However, it is difficult to say exactly when aikido was founded. First, Morihei had not yet named his school as “aikido” in 1925. Second, after 1925, when asked the name of his school, his reply was ambiguous. Third, after he opened his own dojo, Kobukan in Tokyo, he hung a certificate in his dojo that said he was a Daito¬ryu Aiki Jujutsu pupil out of respect for Sokaku Takeda. Lastly, even in 1931, he was taught by Takeda and received a certificate from him.

According to Kenzaburo Tomiki’ s statement, toward the end of 1925 Ueshiba gave lessons at his dojo in Gotanda. Kenzaburo and his elder brother Kenji took lessons there every day. At that time nobody could be Morihei’s uke except for Yoichiro Inoue (Morihei’s nephew), who seldom attended. He had no uchideshi (resident apprentices) and his son Kisshomaru was only five years old. Therefore, Morihei was very glad that Kenji and Kenzaburo joined his school as they had high grades in judo. Morihei had deep faith in the Omoto religion and recited a prayer every morning before an altar in his living room. Although he admitted that his techniques originated in Daito-ryu, he could not go along with Takeda any more. He emphasized that faith in Omoto had built up his strength. For that reason, the Tomiki brothers worked hard both at Morihei’s lessons and in religious austerities.

If we think of 1925 as the founding year of aikido for the reasons mentioned above, we would take the position that Morihei’s awakening to Omoto is significant for aikido. There are still many subjects that we should study, such as the relationship between Morihei’s enlightenment and the completion of the techniques of aikido.

However, we should mention that a document given to a pupil in 1926 by Morihei says that he was taught “Aiki Jujutsu,” not “Daito-ryu Aiki Jujutsu.” We believe that at that time Morihei was going to split away from Daito-ryu.

f) Morihei becomes the owner of a dojo in Tokyo

In the autumn ofl927, Morihei (aged 43) moved to Tokyo at the invitation of the naval general Isamu Takeshita and other enthusiasts. His first dojo was built on the site of Duke Shimazu’s house in a renovated billiards room. Takeshita supported Morihei and set up a club of Aiki Jujutsu with himself as the president and a former prime minister as an adviser. Its membership at that time was limited to the nobility, high military officials, and industrialists. Starting from this temporary dojo, in 1931 he built “Kobukan,” which was an eighty-tatami dojo on the site of the present Aikikai headquarters, and moved there.

Just after Morihei moved to Tokyo, he lived in poverty. But as his supporters gradually grew in numbers, he became better offin about 1929 or 1930. After that, he opened several dojos in Tokyo and Osaka, as his fame was rising day by day. His son, Kisshomaru Ueshiba, wrote that Morihei’s peak of “spirit, mind, and body” was in about 1931. We can see this from the things Kisshomaru wrote and from what pupils said about Morihei in those days.

g) Morihei’s training in Yagyu Shinkage-ryu and Sokaku Takeda’s visit

One of the most notable things about the period between 1927 and 1931 is that Ueshiba eagerly studied Yagyu Shinkage-ryu Kenjutsu. The instructor was Kosaburo Gejo, an expert who Genshu Yagyu permitted to teach. Gejo entered the naval officers’ school in 1884 or 1885. His classmates included Kantaro Suzuki (later prime minister) and Chosei Ogasawara (later naval vice-admiral). The following class included Isamu T akeshita and Masayasu Asano. They kept their senior-junior relationship after their graduation, Takeshita and Asano treating Gejo as their senior although they were actually promoted higher than him in the military. This is why he is always sitting at the center of the front line in pictures with Morihei and other pupils.

In those days Ueshiba often met Gejo at the Yagyu dojo and the place where Ueshiba was teaching. One day Ueshiba saw a covered weapon and became interested in it. He was told about the style they were practicing and was encouraged to try it. This was the first time he had ever seen Yagyu Shinkage-ryu. Gejo taught him directly many kata techniques except those that could only be learned at the highest level. Ueshiba wrote Budo in 1938 and mentioned his practice ofYagyu Shinkage-ryu. He took hints about maai from Gejo.

Gejo lived in Shinjuku and Sokaku Takeda sometimes visited there. Takeda also often called at Ueshiba’s house, but Ueshiba pretended to be out and seemed not to want to see him. On the way from Ueshiba’s house, Takeda would stop at Gejo’s house and tell him that Morihei was not at home again. The exception was a seminar in 1931. Ueshiba had taken lessons from Takeda for about two weeks between March and April of this year according to the eimeiroku. This seminar was given in Ueshiba’s dojo, Kobukan, and Takeshita also took part. Participants were strictly restricted.

h) The establishment of the Kobukai Foundation (i.e., corporation) and the separation from Daito-ryu

Ueshiba hung a certificate of Daito-ryu Aiki J ujutsu from Takeda in his dojo. Although it was taken down later, Ueshiba respected Takeda as a master. In 1933 Ueshiba gave two certificates to Minoru Mochizuki, who was his head pupil in the dojo at that time. They were given under the name of Daito-ryu Aiki Jujutsu. In those days Ueshiba had not always recognized his bujutsu as aikido. When Mochizuki established his dojo in his hometown of Shizuoka he gave instructions to put up a sign reading “Daito-ryu Aiki Jujutsu.” He was determined to do this even though he said to himself that he had no right to do so. We can imagine that Ueshiba was thinking of his independence as a kind ofUeshiba school of Daito¬ryu. He already had many influential supporters and uchideshi and was financially stable. But his separation from Daito-ryu was not simple and caused him great distress.

However, U eshiba gradually stiffened his resolve to be independent as time went by. After two oppressions of the Omoto religion (in 1921 and 1935), he had less to do with it, probably because he was advised against it. Ueshiba changed his school’s name several times to, for example, “Aiki Bujutsu,” “Kobu” and “Kobudo.” From about 1936, it was sometimes called “Aikibudo.” In 1942, the name “Aikibudo” was forced to change temporarily to “Aikido” following instructions from the military government. After World War II, GHQ (General Headquarters) prohib¬ited all budo. When they classified Ueshiba’s jujutsu it was called “Aikido” and this name has taken a firm hold to the present day.

In 1940, the Japanese government approved the foundation of the Kobukai. The next year the war in the Pacific broke out. Because of this, Ueshiba was able to put aikido on a public footing. Also, aikido was formally adopted as regular physical education at Kenkoku University in Manchukuo (the Manchurian pup¬pet state ofJapan) with the efforts ofKenji Tomiki. This time of smooth sailing was to change drastically after the war but it cannot be denied that, before the war, a bujutsu of the first order was created. In 1943 Sokaku Takeda died in Aomori in his 80’s. Ueshiba had gradually broken offhis connections with Daito-ryu by then and ushered in the new generation of aikido.

3.- The development of aikido after World War II

a) The postwar revival of aikido

During the war, Morihei Ueshibashut himself up in Iwama (Ibaragi Prefecture) and spent his time in agricultural life and aikido training. He stayed there for some time afterthe war while Kisshomaru Ueshiba managed the dojo in Tokyo. In 1948 approval was given to change the name from Kobukai to Aikikai. This was at a time when there were hardly any followers and the association was near collapse. This threw Kisshomaru into despair about the future of aikido.

In the middle of this postwar stagnation, one leading aikido player made the aikido world quite exciting. In July 1954, the Japan Budo Championship was held with Gozo Shioda winning the first prize in the enbu event among about 160 participants from a variety ofbudo. Shioda, who became Ueshiba’s pupil in 1932, was one of the best aikido players. After the competition, he was supported by interested people in business circles and established the Y oshinkan dojo in Tokyo in 1955. He greatly contributed to the revival and development of aikido.

From 1954, Ueshiba hung up a sign, “The head dojo of the Aikikai aikido foundation” and Kisshomaru, after quitting his job, gave his total support to Morihei. In 1956, Morihei showed aikido to the public for. ~he first time after World War 11. It is not unusual nowadays to show aikido to the general public, but until then, he had done aikido only in front of his pupils and selected people, so this was a big decision. With this as a start, he chose to popularize aikido, so that now it has become one of the most popular budo in Japan.

b) The objective systematization of teaching methods in aikido

Looking through the postwar histoty of the development of aikido, we find two important things. The first is the popularization of aikido in which the people concerned tried to advertise the fact that Morihei Ueshiba was the founder. As a result of the spread of aikido by Kisshomaru’s instructors and through publica¬tions, Ueshiba and aikido became famous not only in Japan but also around the world.

The second is the systematization of teaching methods. Ueshiba did not usually teach aikido systematically but rather on the spur of the moment so students had to use their brains to learn and memorize techniques. In this situation, Kenji Tomiki (a university professor before and after the war) concentrated his efforts on the theory and systematization of aikido. In 1933 he was involved in editing Budo Renshu (Practice of Budo) by Morihei Ueshiba. He then wrote Aiki Bujutsu Kyotei (1937) and Taijutsu Kyotei (1943) as textbooks for gthe military police school. After World War 11, he took a new look at aikido and rebuilt the old system from the viewpoint of modern physical education. Finally, he thought out a method for competitive aikido. But he was not the principal successor to Morihei Ueshiba. Kisshomaru Ueshiba and Koichi Tohei, who realized another system of aikido, lead the aikido world now. Aikido (1957), by Kisshomaru, became the prototype for other aikido textbooks. He gave names to the basic movements and techniques so that technical points could be easily understood.Originally there were no names for Sokaku Takeda’s techniques. This was the same with Morihei Ueshiba (techniques have no names in Budo Renshu). Kenji Tomiki was the first man to give names to techniques. In 1940, he already had names for some techniques in his work Aiki Budo.

Tomiki started naming techniques because he thought it necessary for everyone to be able to understand and teach them easily. This idea naturally influenced younger instructors. Kisshomaru Ueshiba introduced some names into the table of contents in his first book, Aikido. In those days when people practiced they had to learn only through body movements rather than by names. Due to the hard work of Tomiki and others, many books have been published that have had a very positive effect on aikido.

c) The independence of leading pupils

After World War , Morihei Ueshiba’s organization could be classified into two parts. One was the headquarters run by Kisshomaru Ueshiba as the head of the dojo and Koichi Tohei as the chief instructor. The other was independent and made up of the prewar pupils Yoichiro Inoue, Kenji Tomiki, Minoru Mochizuki, Gozo Shioda and others who became independent developing their own characteristic aikido. With the death of Morihei (in 1969 at age 86), Kanshu Sunadomari, Koichi Tohei, and other instructors belonging to the head dojo became independent, one after another. Kisshomaru’s Aikikai still had influence over the aikido world, but it gradually lost its centralizing force. All instructors looked to Morihei as their master, but each school showed its individuality. Their activities helped aikido to spread all around the world.

Recently, Daito-ryu AikiJujutsu has been highlighted as the origin of aikido. So we need to recognize that aikido in the narrow sense was founded by Morihei Ueshiba and in the broad sense comes from the traditional Daito-ryu Aiki Jujutsu .

4. – Kenji Tomiki and competitive aikido – the aikido of the future

The central force of aikido at present is the Aikikai. Kisshomaru Ueshiba writes in his work Aikido that there is no competition in aikido. They do not accept the value of fighting in matches, thinking that we should train for spiritual strength through aikido. Therefore they deal only with enbu and not competition.

Almost no schools have competition. However, Kenji Tomiki (First President of the Japan Aikido Association) insisted that the old aikido needed to be changed to a new aikido as a form of modern physical education. This idea may be regarded as heresy but if we look at it, we believe that it is rational and practical. This chapter picks up his thoughts, viewpoint of aikido and basic idea to introduce aikido competition. We hope this book is helpful when you think about the future of aikido.

a) Kenji Tomiki’ s view of aikido and Jigoro Kano’s view of judo

Kenji Tomiki wrote in his work Aikido Nyumon (Introduction to Aikido) that he set his eyes on aikido from the point of view of Jigoro Kano, who established judo. 50 to be¬gin with, we take a look at Kano’s view.

Jigoro Kano learned Tenjin 5hinyo-ryu Jujutsu and Kito-ryu Jujutsu in his youth. In 1882, he started the development ofKodokan judo (the foundation for today’s judo) while studying other bujutsu. In 1887, he clarified what judo should be as compared to old jujutsu schools. He said that the goal of judo is to achieve the following three things: taiiku ho (physical fitness), shushin ho (cultivation of the mind) and shobu ho (way of fighting). If you master shobu ho, you can defend yourself when attacked and restrain or even kill someone.

Kano thought that other schools of jujutsu focused only on shobu ho. He insisted that modern budo needs all three disciplines and judo is the best way to achieve this. He defined judo as the way of seiryoku zenyo (the most effective way of using body and mind, or maximum efficiency with minimum effort). You can build up your physical fitness and cultivate your mind through the scientific and rational approach of judo. All things that you can do applying this principle are the practical use of judo and a part of judo.

Based on this way of thinking, Kano put forward two training methods. The first is randori judo, in which students can freely practice some limited throwing and pinning techniques in the style of a match. The other is kata judo, in which they can practice various styles of prearranged techniques. Kano composed many kata in Kodokan judo from old jujutsu. One of these, Kime no kata, includes techniques that are well known in today’s aikido. This suggests that the techniques of aikido are basically the same as the techniques of jujutsu. Kano studied various techniques as long as they were outstanding and respected the philosophy of Kodokan judo.

When Kano visited the dojo in Mejirodai in 1930 and saw Morihei Ueshiba do aikido, he said that it was the ideal budo, i.e. judo. He understood it as part of judo because Ueshiba’s Daito-ryu was part ofjujutsu and judo was created through the development of jujutsu. It was like finding treasure.

In those days, jujutsu had almost disappeared, so Kano was very glad to see Ueshiba’s aikido. He sent Minoru MochizukiandJiro Takeda to Ueshiba’s dojo on his behalf and studied Ueshiba’s techniques in Kodokan. His attitude was amazing – he researched and scientifically analyzed all sons of techniques. AB a result, he not only developed judo but also handed down for posterity the essence of traditional jujutsu. For example, he preserved the yoroi kumiuchi no kata from Kito-ryuJujutsu as the koshiki no kata in judo. He owes his greatness as a modern educator to the attitude with which he established a modern style of jujutsu, as judo, while paying attention to traditions.

Through the works of Tomiki we can see that his conception of aikido was based on Kano’s judo philosophy. Following his personal history, we lqok at the process through which Tomiki developed aikido according to his educational viewpoint. b) The training days of Kenji Tomiki

Tomiki was born in Kakunodate, Akita Prefecture in 1900 where there are still some old samurai residences to this day. He became familiar with budo in childhood and started judo at the age of ten. After that, he kept training as a judo club member from junior high school to his time in Waseda University. His classmate Tsunesaburo Tokoyama (former president ofWaseda University) said that he was both a good judo player and a good student. In his university days, WasedaJudo Club was in its golden age. He sometimes got consecutive wins in the monthly competitions and the half-yearly competitions in spring and autumn in Kodokan. He met Kano on such occasions and was attracted by his personality. He also became interested in traditional jujutsu under the influence of Kano. These things made him study aikido afterwards.

In the summer of 1925, Hidetaro Kubota, who was one of his friends in the Waseda Judo Club, told Tomiki about an outstanding budo practitioner in Ayabe. This story interested him and he called on Ueshiba, with an introduction from Kubota, when Ueshiba came to Tokyo in the autumn of 1925. Tomiki was very impressed with his technique, which was different from judo, and he joined his school. He practiced in Ueshiba’s dojo in Gotanda with his younger brother

c) Kenzaburo day after day

In the summer of 1926, he trained in Ayabe in Ueshiba’s style of aikido for a month. At that time, Ueshiba told Tomiki that he could not follow Sokaku Takeda anymore, although he was his master, because they were disagreeing with each other. He also said that his beliefin the Omoto religion made him stronger and he recommended Tomiki to join. When Tomiki was enrolled in the graduate school at Waseda University, he read many books about Omoto, followed Ueshiba’s teachings, and worked for Ueshiba. At that time nobody could take breakfalls from Ueshiba except for Y oichiro Inoue, who turned up in the dojo occasionally, so Tomiki was immediately given the role of uke in Tokyo.

After that, Tomiki got a job in his hometown as a teacher at Kakunodate Junior High School and studied aikido with Ueshiba during his holidays. In 1934 he left his job and went to Tokyo living within one minute’s walk from the Kobukan dojo, and put all his energy into aikido. In that year, with Ueshiba’ s p~rmission, he went to teach Ueshiba’s aiki jujutsu in Manchukuo at the request of staff officers of the Kanton Army. Hideki Tojo (later a prime minister), who was at that time the top staff officer, raved about Tomiki doing aikido. This resulted in aikido making inroads into China.

d) The theoretical study and in¬ternationalization of aiki budo

In March 1936, Tomiki left for his new post as a lecturer at Daido-Gakuin, a national academy in Manchukuo. Be¬fore he left, he and Masami Takasaki (later 9th dan) called on Kano at Kodokan to pay their respects. On that occasion, Kano encouraged Tomiki and said to him, “We have to leave techniques like those of Mr. Ueshiba to future genera¬tions. The old traditional jujutsu was the same as his style, but it is difficult to find out how to practice them systematically.” Tomiki was very impressed with his talk and responded elatedly that it was possible to do anything with Kano’s judo principles. Tomiki reminisced about this episode in later years.

As the government established Kenkoku University in Manchuria in the spring of 1938, Tomiki was transferred there and took charge of the classes both in the lecturing of bugaku (military science) and the practice of aiki budo, the name of Ueshiba’s school at that time. About that time, his study of aikido made great progress and he wrote a long monograph “Aiki budo and the future of judo” (1937), as well as other splendid works. This monograph proves the existence of aiki budo ~n judo. Judo leaders, including Jiro Nango, the second director of Kodokan, and leaders of other budo supported his study. Ueshiba’s aiki budo held an established position as an educational budo with his favorite pupil. Ueshiba heard about the activity ofTomiki and went to Manchukuo each year from 19403 to 1942, gladly showing aikido to Tomiki’s students and others there.

e) The problem regarding aikido competition

After Manchuria was overthrown in World War II, Tomiki was interned in Siberia for three and a half years by the army of the Soviet Union. He came back to Japan in November 1948 at a time when everything relating to budo was prohibited by order of the GHQ (General Headquarters). He made efforts to restore judo and set up the All Japan Judo Federation and the All Japan Student Judo Federation for the sake of Kodokan. In the autumn of 1949, he took a teaching post at the Institute of Physical Education at W aseda University. In 1951, he became the chief instructor of the Waseda University Judo Club.

Tomiki started judo again but he never forgot aikido. In 1949 he called on Ueshiba in Iwama and paid his respects for the first time since returning to Japan. He taught aikid? to interested business people in Tokyo. However, he had few opportunities to instruct so he showed his enthusiasm for aikido to students of the Waseda University Judo Club. He taught them aikido after the daily practice of judo. Unfortunately, it was difficult for the judo students to keep practicing aikido as well, so those who wanted to do aikido needed a separate dojo. He was determined to start an aikido club at Waseda University to hand down aikido for posterity. He began to work toward setting up a method of competitive aikido. That was the condition the university authorities gave him for starting the club. He wrote down a record of the sequence of events up to the approval of the Waseda University Aikido Club, as described below, taken from the Waseda University Aikido Club 20th Anniversary publication in 1978. In 1940, Ueshiba adopted the dan grade system and made Tomiki his fIrst 8th dan.

“Waseda University Aikido Club was established in April 1958 and, at the same time, aikido was put into the university curriculum as one of the regular courses. Before rhat, the Committee of Physical Education, which consisted of the dean of each department, the head of each sports club, and the professors of physical education, requested an explanation and presentation of material about the following three themes for the approval of the club.

“The first was the historical and traditional significance of aikido as a Japanese budo. The second was the significance from the point of view of physical education and the practice system of aikido. The third was the possibility of international development in the future. The committee asserted that modern budo should provide the opportunity for safe competition and advancement as in judo and kendo. They asked how it was possible to have aikido matches as a sports contest because in old bujutsu a real fight was the only way to evaluate ability objectively. As a result of this conference, the committee approved the creation of the Waseda Aikido Club on the condition that the aikido competition method be completed.”

f) The invention of competitive aikido

Tomiki wrote the following works during and after World War II: “The systematic study of judo techniques keeping some distance” (1942), “Judo calisthenics” (1954), and “An introduction to aikido” (1958). The first clarifies rationally how to deal with an opponent at some distance in judo, mentioning Tomiki’ s study and experience of aikido (the director of Kodokan set this problem during the war). The second introduces aikido techniques from the viewpoint of Kano’s judo principles and shows basic exercises. The subtitle is “The method of practicing aiki no jutsu through the principles of judo.” The third gives more information about the first of these books from the viewpoint of aikido.

Although he did not write these books to work out his plan to theorize aikido competition, such a study over many years helped him conceive the idea. In October 1960, Tomiki presented the idea at a meeting of the Japan Physical Education Society. This prototype of aikido competition is now called toshu randori and used atemi waza, kansetsu waza, and uki waza. In the 1960s, another competition style was created and was called tanto randori – empty hand against rubber knife. Refer to chapter 6, which deals with aikido competition.

g) The significance and purpose of competitive aikido

The main reasons are mentioned above. We clarifY these through Tomiki’s remarks:

“At last I have established a new method of aikido practice called aikido randori4 that is different ftom the usual kata practice. I believe that the new method lets you imptove your aikido skills and spiritual strength thtough competition based on the viewpoint of physical education.

“Ueshiba and I had the same teacher, Jigoro Kano. The reason for developing aikido centered on randori rather than kata was because of the teaching method and way of doing old jujutsu that he taught us. He established judo randori to be able to practice the techniques of old jujutsu in competition. Why did he establish it when old jujutsu is usually practiced thtough repetition of kata? Randori is the shortcut to mastering real skills and it does not make you stick to formality but lets you study techniques of your own accord. The target of modern physical education is to build up your personality and enhance your humanity thtough competition. Therefore, randori must be the best way to attain this educational objective.

“First, I had to nartow down the techniques to some extent and develop a new system of training to establish randori by modifYing the old traditional jujutsu. Kano classified techniques of the jujutsu schools and picked up some nage waza and katame waza. Then he adapted a practice style in which you are matched holding each other’s lapels or sleeves of the gi. Judo randori btought forth new leg techniques that had never been seen in old jujutsu or in other countries. You can thtoW and hold down an opponent with your legs or waist when you get in close to fight using these techniques.”(New Aikido Text, revised edition 1983. First edition 1963.)

Tomiki clarified the aim and meaning of Kano’s thinking and methods, then gave his opinion as follows:

“When I classify the techniques of old traditional jujutsu, I find atemi waza and kansetsu waza, as well as nage waza and katame waza. As these techniques were excluded ftom judo randori, people who practice judo have not had enough opportunity to practice them. They are as important as nage waza and katame waza and there are a wide variety of them. To make use of them in modern education, we should establish a new randori method in addition to judo randori and make it possible to practice them fUlly. This is the reason for the idea of inventing aikido randori.”

We can see that Tomiki tried to develop the old traditional jujutsu into a new modern budo from the viewpoint of education. He did not rest on the laurels of Morihei Ueshiba and Jigoro Kano, though he always respected them for their achievements. Kano says in his work Judo no Hongi to Shugyo no Mokuteki (The True Meaning ofJudo and the Goal of Training) that he did not want to take pride in his principle. He said that he did not teach his ways of judo but a universal principle through judo, so everyone could devise something from their own ideas using judo principles. Therefore, judo would last for a long time. He regarded the scientific approach and the universal truth that derived from it as vital. If in the future you find mistakes in what he has taught, these are not his true teachings but rather his errors in applyingjudo principles, so you will be able to modifY them. We can say that Tomiki’ s achievement was based on Kano’s ideas and made one more step toward their ideal.

h) The future of aikido

In 1970, the first All Japan StudentAikido Competition was held in Tokyo with around 20 universities taking part. After that, competitive aikido gradually became familiar to other students of other universities and the general public. Several contests of freestyle matches and kata were also held among adult members. Some people praised Tomiki as the founder of competitive aikido, but he was also criticized for it. He was told that it was not aikido or was asked who had taught him. He left the following message late in life:

“Some people say that I founded competitive aikido, but I did not. All of you are the founders. Many years of your efforts have brought us the achievement we have today. Everybody’s effort will make aikido perfect.” (North Japan Aikido Competition in Kakunodate, August 1978)

Sokaku Takeda, who revived Daito-ryu Aiki Jujutsu, Morihei Ueshiba who founded aikido, Kenji Tomiki, who refused to accept the title of “founder,” and many other successors have overcome many hardships. Now many aikido followers go their own way all over the world.

The most important thing now is to harmonize every school while respecting each one’s originality and distinctive features. We think the future of aikido depends on the mutual understanding and friendly relationships between every school. That is why we introduce the thoughts and theory of Kenji Tomiki. We are expecting all followers to think about these things for the future of aikido.

Tomiki, with former members of Waseda, Kokushikan, and Seijo University aikido clubs and members of public clubs, established the Japan Aikido Association on March 9th, 1975. Today, there are many university and public clubs, large and small, under the JAA. Among them, Waseda University Aikido Club and Shodokan have been the two main contributors to the history of competitive aikido. The Waseda Aikido Club was formed in spring 1958. It was a testing ground for competitive aikido and was tasked with introducing it nationally and internationally. Shodokan was formed in April 1967 as Tomiki’s first dojo, exclusively for the research and teaching of his Shodokan Aikido. Today, Shodokan has a practice area of81 tatami located in a modern five-story building. Masaharu Uchiyama, the VicePresident of the JAA and a great supporter of Tomiki, provided it on March 27, 1988.

The meaning of Shod ok an is “place for identifying the way.” The first character, sho comes from the showa period in which shodokan was founded and is also found in the name of Mr. Uchiyama’s company. The second character, do means: “way” and comes from Kano’s Kodokan (meaning “place for teaching the way”).

Tomiki’s dedication and contribution to aikido is shown through his speech at the opening of shodokan, his mushin mugamae calligraphy, and the symbol of shodokan and the JAA. These original documents are all displayed at shodokan. He hoped that it would be the centre for aikido activities. Today, it is recognized as the central dojo for both the JAA and the world of competitive aikido.